Hopkins Marine Station Student Paper

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(full paper is archived in the Miller Library)

Title: The lower limits of the habitats of Littorina scutulata and Littorina planaxis
Student Author(s): Peterson, Russell E.
Pages: 7
Location: Final Papers Biology 175H
Date: June 1964
Keywords: periwinkle
littorina
Abstract: Thus, the physical force of water and the biological force of predation combine to set a lower limit on the habitation of LIttorina. This limit facilitates their survival and functions through a mechanism of negative geotaxis. It is possible taht ling ago, the ancesotrs of these Littorina developed in two directions. One branch had a negative geotaxis and climbed out of the water. The other branch may have had a positive geotaxis or none. Those Littorina living below the water were eventually eaten by crabs, starfish, and fish while those aboe the sea have survived.