(full paper is archived in the Miller Library)
Title: A latitudinal survey of
Symbiodinium in Anthopleura sola
Student Author(s): Jachowski, Nicholas
Faculty Advisor(s): Somero, George
Location: Final Papers Biology 175H
Date: June 2007
Abstract: Endosymbiotic algae, commonly of the genus Symbiodinium, are important in the life cycles of many marine invertebrates. Being aware of the diversity of algal symbionts in species of symbiont-containing invertebrates is a first step towards understanding host-symbiont interactions and what adaptive advantages these interactions provide. The symbionts of a common California intertidal sea anemone, Anthopleura sola, were surveyed across a latitudinal gradient of approximately 800 km. A. sola samples were collected at six sites from Monterey Bay to San Diego, California. Analysis of the chloroplast 23s ribosomal RNA gene showed three distinct types of Symbiodinium (types I, II, III). Data show previously unknown diversity in Anthopleura symbionts in a tri-partite latitudinal replacement of Symbiodinium types. Type I was the only Symbiodinium haplotype present in Monterey, the northernmost site. Going south, it was still the dominant type in Big Sur, but type III was also present in low levels. Only type lll was praesent in the Santa Barbara Channel. The final three, low latitude sites, White's Point, Dana Point, and Cabrillo Point, were populated with types II and III. Type II was more common at White's Point and Dana Point, while type III was more common at the southernmost site, Cabrillo Point. Results suggest that type I is a cold-adapted Symbiodinium, type II is cool-adapted, and type III is warm-adapted.