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2011 Election
Buhari / Bakare Presidential Campaign - http://buhari4change.com/
Goodluck Jonathan Presidential Campaign - Site is closed. http://www.goodluckjonathanfor2011.com/
Nuhu Ribadu for President 2011- http://ribadu2011.com/
Ibrahim Shekarau Presidential Campaign - http://ibrahimshekarau.com/ and Mallam Ibrahim Shekarau Facebook Page
Congress for Progressive Change Facebook Page
Congress for Progressive Change Facebook Page
Congress for Progressive Change - Imo State - http://www.cpcimostate.org/ and Facebook Page
Independent National Electoral Commission - http://www.inecnigeria.org/
Google Election Portal - http://www.google.com.ng/landing/elections/2011/

Campbell, John, "Technology, Social Media, and Nigeria's Elections"
July 6, 2011 article by Campbell. Mentions the study by Judith Asuni of Academic Associates Peaceworks and Jacqueline Farris of the Shehu Musa Yar'Adua Foundation on "Tracking Social Media: the Social Media Tracking Centre and the 2011 Nigerian Election." http://blogs.cfr.org/campbell/2011/07/06/technology-social-media-and-nigerias-elections/
AllAfrica.com - Nigeria Page
Current news. Older commentary on the 2003 election. http://allafrica.com/nigeria/
BBC. 2003 Nigeria Election Diary
"BBC News Online's Joseph Winter is in Nigeria, covering this month's national assembly, presidential and state governor elections. He is keeping a diary of his travels around the country." Profiles of candidates. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/2935491.stm
Babangida, Ibrahim
Site of the former President of Nigeria. http://www.ibrahim-babangida.com/
[Buhari] Muhammadu Buhari for President of Nigeria 2007
General Muhammadu Buhari is the Presidential Candidate of the All Nigeria People’s Party (ANPP) for 2007. He was also a presidential candiate in 2003. "This site has been set up as a resource for the general public on the candidate, his vision and his mission." Biography, campaign platform. Based in Garden City, New York. http://www.buhari.org/
Carter Center
Use the Activities by Country link to locate the Center's election and health work in Nigeria. This retrieves, for ex. the full text reports, "The 2003 Nigerian Electoral Process: Second Report by the National Democratic Institute and The Carter Center," pub. March 2003, "First Statement by the National Democratic Institute and The Carter Center on the Nigerian Electoral Process, 2003" pub. 2002, 9 pages, in Adobe pdf. Observering the 1998-99 Nigeria Elections (77 p. in pdf). The Carter Center in Atlanta, Ga., is a nonprofit, nonpartisan public policy institute founded by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter and his wife, Rosalynn, in 1982." [KF] http://www.CarterCenter.org/
Centre for Democracy and Development - Nigeria 2007 Election
http://www.cddwestafrica.org/cdd/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=17&Itemid=2
Centre for Democracy and Development. Nigeria's 2003 Elections
Their Briefing includes sections on Why are Nigeria’s 2003 elections so important?, The history of democratic elections in Nigeria, Politics, wealth and power, Political parties in Nigeria, Local rivalries and political violence, Party Politics and violence, etc. The Centre is a London-based ngo promoting democracy, peace & human rights in Africa and especially in the West African sub-region. [KF] http://www.cdd.org.uk/resources/elections/Briefing_Nig_Elections.htm
CNN. 2003 Election Watch - Nigeria
http://www.cnn.com/WORLD/election.watch/africa/nigeria4.html
Commonwealth Secretariat. Election Observer Group Reports
Statements and reports on the 2007 election. Report and statements of the Commonwealth Observer Group on the National Assembly and Presidential Elections in Nigeria 12 and 19 April 2003. The Commonwealth Secretariat is based in London. .http://www.thecommonwealth.org/Document/39079/152078/election_observer_group_reports/
Democratic Socialist Movement
"An independent mass working people's political party with a socialist programme to provide an alternative to the existing capitalist parties." In the 2003 election, supports the National Conscience Party (NCP) "led by the lawyer and fighter for human rights, Chief Gani Fawehinmi, who is also the party's presidential candidate." Supports workers' rights. Based in Lagos, Nigeria. Web site based in London, U.K. [KF] http://www.socialistnigeria.org/
Economic and Financial Crimes Commission, EFCC
May contain election related information. A government commission head by Mal Nuhu Ribadu. http://www.efccnigeria.org/index.php
European Union. Election Observation Mission - Nigeria 2007
Includes preliminary findings of April 23, 2007, media monitoring report, press releases, photographs, etcS. http://eueom-ng.org/
Gubernatorial Candidates - 2003 Election
Annotated directory, by state, of gubernatorial web sites. From the Stanford University Libraries. http://www-sul.stanford.edu/depts/ssrg/africa/nigeria/nigeria-election-gubernatorial.html
Human Rights Watch - A Human Rights Agenda for Nigeria's 2007 General Elections and Beyond
Feb. 2007 full text report. http://hrw.org/backgrounder/africa/nigeria0207/
Human Rights Watch - Nigeria’s 2003 Elections: The Unacknowledged Violence
Full text, in Adobe pdf. 49 p. Pub. June 2004. "Both Nigeria’s federal and state elections in 2003 and local government elections in 2004 were marred by serious incidents of violence. The scale of the violence and intimidation, much of which went unreported, called into question the credibility of these elections. This report documents cases of electoral violence in 2003. It also refers to incidents of violence reported around the 2004 local government elections,... Human Rights Watch is publishing this report to highlight the cost of ignoring political violence and to urge all those concerned to take measures to prevent violence in the next general elections in Nigeria scheduled for 2007." http://hrw.org/reports/2004/nigeria0604/
Human Rights Watch - Nigeria: Political Violence Increasing Before Elections
"The Nigerian government is doing far too little to prevent a wave of political violence in the pre-election period, Human Rights Watch said in a briefing paper released today. January 29, 2003" http://www.hrw.org/press/2003/01/nigeria0128.htm
Human Rights Watch - Testing Democracy: Political Violence in Nigeria
Published April 10, 2003. 39 p. "documents numerous cases of political violence across Nigeria and discusses the weak response by government and police to date." "The report is based on research in Nigeria during December 2002 and February 2003, and includes several case studies that illustrate patterns of violence across different states." It "documents several high-profile assassinations, including the killing on March 5 of Marshall Harry, vice chairman for the south south zone of the opposition ANPP,...' http://www.hrw.org/press/2003/04/nigeria041003.htm
IDASA - Nigeria Election Updates
See Elections & Electoral Systems. Reports, in Adobe pdf, on Electoral Climate Analysis, National Assembly Elections, Preliminary Findings on the first round of the 2003 elections, Weekly Updates, April 12,2003: Election Day Report for Kogi State, Communal Conflicts in Plateau State, The Situation in Warri, Warri crisis Update, The death of Marshall Harry. IDASA is a public interest organisation (with offices in Pretoria and Cape Town) that promotes democracy in South Africa. From the IDASA Abuja office. [KF] http://www.idasa.org.za/
IDEA - Democracy in Nigeria
Published 2003. Full text. http://www.idea.int/africa/nigeria/index.cfm
INEC, Independent National Electoral Commission - Nigeria
INEC is a permanent body created by the constitution to organize Federal and state elections in Nigeria. Election news, press releases. Directory of registered political parties. Who can vote, and more. Based in Abuja, Nigeria. [KF] http://www.inecnigeria.org/
International Republican Institute & Nigeria's Transition to Democracy - April 2003
Reports from the IRI's election observers, press releases, newspaper articles. Examples: April 22, 2007 Preliminary Findings of IRI's International Election Observation Mission. See also the IRI Nigeria page.

2003 Election. 2003 Nigeria Election Observation Report (108 p. in pdf). "Observation Mission Preliminary Statement" by Ambassador Robert C. Perry and George A. Folsom, April 21, 2003. The IRI is based in Washington, D.C. http://www.iri.org/ http://www.iri.org/03-nigeria-elect.asp
Jibril, Sarah
Site closed. Progressive Action Congress (PAC) party's official 2003 Presidential candidate. Candidate's c.v., platform, acceptance speech, etc. Based in Abuja. Web site based in Buffalo, NY. [KF] http://www.sarahjibril4president.org/
National Conscience Party
Its 2003 Presidential candidate is Chief Gani Fawehinmi and Vice Presidential candidate Mr. Jerry Gopye. Party platform, party constitution, party gubernatorial candidates. The National Conscience Party was formed [by Gani Fawehinmi] and "publicly launched as a political party on the 1st of October 1994. It was formed as an act of defiance against the then military junta of General Sani Abacha." Web site registered in Gwagwalada, Abuja, and copyrighted by the NCP, United States Headquarters, Washington, D.C. [KF] http://www.nigeriancp.net/
National Democratic Institiute for International Affairs
See their Election Watch reports (Election Watch 2007, March 7, 2003, March 21, 2003, April 21, 2003, etc), press releases and Nigeria report. May 10, 2006 statement by the NDI pre-election delegation (8 p. in pdf). April 23, 2007 statement by the NDI Observer Delegation (6 p. in pdf). http://www.ndi.org/
National Democratic Party
Official site. Party constitution, its 2003 Presidential candidate was Ike Omar Sanda Nwachukwu, photographs of party officials. Site based in Marietta, Georgia. http://www.ndpnigeria.com/
Network of Mobile Election Monitors
"a non-partisan non-profit project coordinated by Human Emancipation Lead Project. The project goal is to involve Nigerians with mobile phones to monitor the forth coming Nigerian presidential election through SMS to ensure impartial elections." Used technology from kiwanja. See article from Pambazuka News, May 16, 2007. http://www.mobilemonitors.org/
New Democrats
Party constitution, manifesto, photographs. Its National Chairman is Professor Isa Odidi. "New Democrats (ND) was officially founded in April 26th, 2002, registered in December 2002 by Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) as a Political Party in Nigeria." Based in Toronto, Canada. http://www.ndnigeria.com/
Nigeria Congress - Election 2003
The Nigera Congress web site on the 2003 elections. Includes a directory of the 30 political parties which contested the April 2003 election. http://www.nigeriacongress.org/elections/
Nigeria Election Analysis 2003
"The 2003 elections in Nigeria promise to be a critical moment for democratic consolidation in Nigeria. How do we best make sense of events as they unfold? This page offers expert analysis of the current political situation in Nigeria from scholars in-country who are following events as they develop." "Our first contributor is Dr. Rotimi Suberu of Ibadan University,...in a short article entitled "Can Nigeria Muddle Through the April 2003 elections?" Site from the Dispute Resolution Program, University of Massachusetts, Boston. For questions / comments, contact Prof. Darren Kew: darren.kew@umb.edu http://site.www.umb.edu/forum/1/Dispute_Resolution/res/nigeria/Personal_Web_Page.htm
Nigeria Election Hotline
Site has closed. On the 2007 election. "Nigeria Election Hotline is moderated by the newsletter Africa Confidential and funded by the Open Society Institute. It is edited by Laolu Akande and written by reporters in Abuja, Lagos, Kano, Enugu and Port Harcourt,..." http://www.nigeriaelectionhotline.com/
Nigeria First. 2007 Election
Official website of the Presidential Research & Communications Unit, State House, Abuja. Election news, Presidential election results. List of cleared presidenteial candidates (2 p. in pdf). Based in Abuja, Nigeria. [KF] http://www.nigeriafirst.org/election2007.shtml
Nwangwu, Chido - "Elections in Nigeria more a battle of the retired Generals and votes buying bazaar"
Nwangwu is founder & publisher of USAfrica. http://www.usafricaonline.com/chido.politicalgenerals.html
Nwobodo, James Ifeanyichukwu
Senator Nwobodo was the 2003 official Presidential candidate of the United Nigeria Peoples Party (UNPP). Biography, plress releases. Based in Abuja, Nigeria. [KF} http://www.jimnwobodo.com/
[Nwodo] Chief John Nnia Nwodo, Jr.
Site has closed. Presidential aspirant for the 2003 election of the All Nigeria People's Party. Based in Irving, Texas. http://www.johnnwodo2003.org/
Okadigbo, Chuba
Site has closed. Chuba Okadigbo is a Senator of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and 2003 official Vice-Presidential candidate and General Buhari's running mate for the All Nigeria Peoples’ Party. The web site title is "Vote Senator Chuba Okadigbo for President." Based in London, U.K. [KF] http://www.okadigbo4president.com/
Okikiade, Emmanuel Adesoji
Okikiade is a candidate for Councillor in Ward F3, for the June 21, 2003 Lagos Local Government Councillorship election. Alliance for Democracy party. Campaign headquarters in Lagos. Three pages. E-mail contact: soj4councillor@yahoo.co.uk http://sojokikiade.tripod.com/ Tripod is in Waltham, MA.
Peoples Mandate Party
Site closed. Its 2003 Presidential candidate is Dr. Arthur A. Nwankwo. Party manifesto, constitution, photographs. Based in Enugu, Nigeria. Site does not work in older Netscape browsers. Based in Bowie, Maryland. [KF] http://www.peoplesmandateparty.org/
Royal African Society
2007 Election. Articles by Richard Dowden. Election observer comments. Links to BBC articles. Based in London. http://www.royalafricansociety.org/
Stakeholder Democracy Network
Non-profit to improve civil society relations with local authorities in Rivers, Delta and Bayelsa States. Produced an observer report for the April 2007 state and federal elections, Further Rigging. Election Observation Report: Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Delta & Rivers States. (68 pages in pdf). Based in London. http://www.stakeholderdemocracy.org
Transition Monitoring Group
The TMG is a Coalition of Human Rights, Non-Governmental and Civil Society Organisations in Nigeria. Has An Election Programmed to Fail: Preliminary Report on the Presidential and National Assembly Elections Held on Saturday, April 21, 2007 ( 6 p. in pdf). Also Preliminary Report on the Gubernatorial and State Assemblies Election April 16, 2007 (7 p. in pdf). Based in Abuja, Nigeria. [KF[ http://www.tmgnigeria.org/
United States. Naval Postgraduate School. Center for Contemporary Conflict - The Import of Nigeria's April 2003 Elections by Jessica Piombo
Nigeria's strategic importance, implications for Nigerian democracy. The NPS-CCC is based in Monterey, California. [KF] http://www.ccc.nps.navy.mil/rsepResources/si/june03/africa.asp
Voice of America. Straight Talk Africa Nigerian Presidential Candidates' Debate
Odumegwu Ojukwu, Presidential candidate of the All Progressive Grand Alliance, and General Muhammadu Buhari, Presidential candidate of the All Nigeria Peoples Party are interviewed by Shaka Ssali in Abuja, Nigeria in the last part of the program. The first part of the program were discussions on elections in Africa, esp. in Nigeria by Sunday Dare, Chief, VOA Hausa Service and Rebecca McMenamin, Chief, VOA English to Africa Service, with audience call in questions. The audio program requires a sound card and speakers or headset. Program held Wednesday, March 26, 1830-2000 UTC. [KF] http://www.voanews.com/tvtoafrica/.
Wikipedia - Politics of Nigeria and 2007 Election
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Nigeria
Yar'adua, Umaru Musa
Site of 2007 Presidential candidate, Governor Umaru Musa Yar’adua and candidate of the Peoples Democratic Party. Has his Victory Speech on winning the 2007 Presidential Election. Information on Vice President Goodluck Jonathan. http://www.yaradua2007.com/,/

 

Print Sources

Kew, Darren. "The 2003 Elections: Hardly Credible, but Acceptable." In Crafting the New Nigeria, edited by Robert I. Rotberg, 139-173. Boulder, London: Lynne Rienner, 2004.

Has a table of the projected and actual votes by state and main parties (ANPP, APGA, PDP, others).




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