Beilstein German-English and English-German dictionary Stanford University
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Beilstein German → English and
English → German Dictionary

For users of the Beilstein Handbook of Organic Chemistry

Copyright 1990 by Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg. Reproduced for educational purposes with permission from Springer-Verlag.

German → English


English → German


Page Contents: Preface | Notes for the User | Formulations Commonly Used in Beilstein


The Beilstein Dictionary (German/English) has been compiled by the scientific staff of the Beilstein Institute to facilitate the use of Basic Series and Supplementary Series I to IV by those Handbook users whose native language is not German. With a total of about 2,100 entries, it contains most German words occurring in the Beilstein Handbook, as well as common abbreviations, alphabetically listed with their English equivalents.

An appended supplement (page 59 onwards) lists a series of “standard formulations” frequently used in Beilstein, together with their English translations.

It is our hope that this glossary will prove of assistance to the non German-speaking user of Beilstein, in overcoming any language difficulties which may be encountered.

— The editorial staff of Beilstein

Notes for the User

The English equivalents of German words appearing in the Beilstein Handbook are chosen such that in each case the most usual translation in the context of the Handbook of Organic Chemistry is listed first, followed by other possibilities which can also occur in this context. The equivalents of a particular German word which are not relevant to this context are not included; e.g. the word “mittelstandig” in a chemical text would almost invariably mean “in the middle or central position” and NOT “middle class” which is the everyday meaning of the word.

German words whose spelling is identical to the English or so similar that confusion is unlikely to arise are generally not included; e.g. the German words “Potential” and “Elektrode” are not listed. Synonyms of English words are not given when their meaning is identical to the word listed; e.g. German “nahe” is translated by the word “near”; the synonym “close”, which is identical in meaning, is not given.

Where a German word can have several different translations according to the context in which it occurs (within the wider context of the Handbook), or where the English word given is open to misinterpretation, an explanatory note is provided in brackets; e.g. German “abhandeln” is translated as “treat”, the words “a topic or subject” are given in brackets to indicate the usage of this word, which cannot, for example, mean treat a patient, or, treat a solid with a liquid, etc.

Past participles and other parts of verbs which may not be immediately recognizable from the infinitive form are listed separately at the appropriate place (alphabetically); e.g. 'ist' (is) will be found as well as “sein” (to be).

The preposition “to”, indicating the infinitive form, is included before all English verbs. This enables the user to identify the German word immediately as a verb.

Nouns in German, as in many other languages, with the notable exception of English, are associated with a GENDER, masculine (m), feminine (f) or neuter (n), even though the noun may refer to an inanimate object or an abstract idea. The genders of all nouns included in this vocabulary are indicated by the appropriate letter in brackets behind the German word. This is not only useful for the user who has some knowledge of German but also enables immediate recognition of a noun. Another feature which facilitates recognition of German nouns is that they are all invariably written with a capital letter (not just proper nouns as in English).

Most “longer” German words (usually nouns) are compound words formed by simply writing two (or occasionally more) shorter words together (to form a new idea associated with both of them), but without a space or hyphen as is usual in English.

For example, “reaction vessel” would be written “Reaktionsgefass” in German, i.e. “reaktion” (reaction) plus “Gefass” (vessel). The additional “s” or sometimes “n” between two words merely acts as a link without further significance.

In order to make such “double” nouns easier to read for users of this vocabulary who are unfamiliar with them, they are printed with a hyphen between them, e.g. “Reaktionsgefass” is written “Reaktions-gefass”, (clearly indicating the association of ideas), although in the text of the Handbook the two words are more commonly to be found in the composite form without the hyphen. German words beginning with a modified vowel (a,o,u) are to be found immediately after those beginning with the corresponding unmodified vowel. e.g. ab before ab before ac before ac, etc.

The letters double ‘s’ can be written in two ways in German, either as ss or as ß (similar to the Greek beta), according to a special set of rules (which are of no interest to the non-linguist). In order to simplify matters for the non German-speaker and avoid confusion, only the ss form is used in this dictionary.

Formulations Commonly Used in Beilstein

A. Constitution

(1) Die früher unter dieser Konstitution beschriebene Verbindung ist (wahrscheinlich) als zu formulieren. The compound formerly described by this constitution is to be (probably) formulated as …

(2) Entsprechendes gilt für die als … und als … beschriebenen Derivate. Correspondingly for the derivatives described as … and as …

(3) Bezüglich der Konstitution s. … For the constitution see …

(4) Die(se) (beiden) Konstitution(en) (Both) the(se) constitution(s) - wird (werden) auf Grund der genetischen Beziehung zu . - zugeordnet. - is (are) assigned on the basis of their derivational relationship to … - wird (werden) der (den) nachstehenden Verbindung(en) zu- geordnet. -is (are) assigned to the following compound(s). - kommt (wahrscheinlich) der von … als … formulierten Verbindung zu. -is (probably) assignable to the compound formulated as … by …

(5) Nach Ausweis des …-Spektrums According to the … spectrum; - liegt (bei Raumtemperatur) uberwiegend … vor.- … predominates (at room temperature). - hat im nachstehend beschriebenen Präparat … vorgelegen. - compound … was present in the described next.

(6) Die Verbindung ist als … zu formulieren. The compound is to be formulated as …

(7) Ausser dieser Konstitution ist auch die Formulierung als … in Betracht zu ziehen. Besides this constitution the formulation … must also be considered.

(8) Über eine ebenfalls unter dieser Konstitution beschriebene Verbindung s. … For a further compound described by this constitution see …

(9) Die Konstitution ist nicht gesichert. This constitution has not been fully verified.

(10) Die Einheitlichkeit ist zweifelhaft. The homogeneity is doubtful.

(11) Die Identität der von … unter dieser Konstitution beschriebenen Verbindung ist ungewiss. The identity of the compound described by … as having this constitution is uncertain.

(12) In dem in … beschriebenen Präparat In the compound described in … - hat ein Gemisch von … mit … vorgelegen. - a mixture of … and … was present. - hat ein Gemisch mit dem unter … beschriebenen Stereo-isomeren vorgelegen.- a mixture containing the stereo-isomers described in … was present. - hat ein Isomerengemisch vorgelegen. - a mixture of isomers was present.

B. Isolation

(1) Gewinnung aus dem unter … beschriebenen Racemat mit Hilfe von … Isolation from the racemate described under … with the aid of …

(2) Gewinnung aus gleichen Teilen der unter (a) und (b) beschriebenen optischen Antipoden. Isolation from equal parts of the optical antipodes described under (a) and (b).

C. Formation (abbreviated B.)

(1) Aus … mit Hilfe von … From … with the aid of …

(2) Aus … beim Behandeln(*) mit … und anschliessenden Behandeln(*) mit … From … on treatment(*) with … and subsequent treatment(*) with …

(3) Aus … bei der Umsetzung mit … und anschliessenden Behandeln(*) mit … From … by conversion with … and subsequent treatment(*) with …

(4) Analog (aus) der vorangehenden (folgenden) Verbindung. Analogous to the preceding (following) compound.

(5) s. im vorangehenden/voranstehenden (folgenden) Artikel. See preceding (following) item.

D. Chemical Behavior

(1) Beim Behandeln(*) mit … ist … erhalten worden. Treatment(*) with … results in formation of …

(2) Bildung von … und … beim Behandeln(*) mit … in … unter Zusatz von … und Behandeln(*) des Reaktionsprodukts mit … Formation of … and … on treatment(*) with … in … with addition of … and treatment(*) of the reaction product with …

(3) Beim Erhitzen mit … in … auf …°, anschliessenden Be-handeln(*) mit … und Erhitzen des danach erhaltenen Reaktionsprodukts auf …° ist … erhalten worden. Heating with in … to …°, subsequent treatment(*) with … and heating the reaction product obtained to …° results in …

(4) Mengenverhältnis der Reaktionsprodukte … und … beim Be-handeln(*) mit … bei … °. Ratio of reaction products … and … on treatment(*) with … at … °.

(5) Gleichgewichtskonstante des Reaktionssystems … Equilibrium constant of the reaction system …

(6) Kinetik der Reaktion mit … Kinetics of the reaction with … Geschwindigkeitskonstante der Reaktion mit … Rate constant of the reaction with … I Zeitlicher Verlauf der Reaktion mit … Time dependent progress of the reaction with …

(7) Reaktivitat gegenüber … Reactivity towards …

(8) Analog verlaufen die Reaktionen der Homologen. The reactions of the homologs proceed analogously.

(9) Die beim Behandeln(*) mit … erhaltene Verbindung … The compound obtained on treatment with … -ist als … zu formulieren. -is formulated as … -ist nicht als …, sondern als … zu formulieren. -is not formulated as … but as …

(10) Die Identitat der beim Behandeln(*) mit … erhaltenen, fruher als … beschriebenen Verbindung ist ungewiss. The identity of the compound obtained on treatment(*) with … formerly described as … is uncertain.

(11) Beim Behandeln(*) mit … ist … nicht wiedererhalten worden … is not recovered by treatment with …

(*) For possible alternative wording consult dictionary.

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