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CA Index Guide (Appendix I) 1994

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Subject Heading 60

A publication of the Chemical Abstracts Service published by the American Chemical Society, and reproduced here with permission from the Chemical Abstracts Service.

60. THERMODYNAMICS AND ENERGETICS
a              Activity                                                   
               * Osmotic coefficient                                      
               Calorimetry                                                
               Compression and Compressibility                            
               Degree of freedom                                          
               Energy                                                     
               * Activation energy                                        
               * * Evans-Polanyi equation                                 
               * Bond energy                                              
               * Crystal lattice energy                                   
               * Energy total                                             
               * Energy balance                                           
               * Energy level                                             
                    [See Hierarchies 6 and 49]                            
               * Energy transfer                                          
               * Geothermal energy                                        
               * Kinetic energy                                           
               * Localization energy                                      
               * Nuclear binding energy                                   
               * Nuclear energy                                           
               * Potential energy and function                            
b              * * Correlation energy                                     
               * * Elementary-particle potential                          
               * * Nuclear potential                                      
               * * Potential barrier                                      
               * * * Tunneling                                            
                * *Potential energy surface and                           
                            hypersurface                                  
                * *Pseudopotential                                        
               * Solar energy                                             
               * Stabilzation energy                                      
               Surface energy                                             
               * * Interfacial energy                                     
               Enthalpy and Enthalpy function                             
               * Mollier diagram                                          
               Entropy                                                    
               * Entropy of activation                                    
               * Mollier diagram                                          
               Equation of state                                          
               * Virial coefficient                                       
               Equilibrium                                                
               Expansion, Dilation and Elongation                         
c              * Joule-Thomson effect                                     
               Free energy                                                
               * Chemical potential                                       
               * Free energy function                                     
               * Free energy of activation                                
               * Linear free energy relationship                          
               * * Evans-Polanyi equation                                 
               * * Isokinetic and isoequilibrium                          
                        relations                                         
               * Surface tension                                          
               * * InterfaciaI tension                                    
               Fugacity                                                   
               Heat                                                       
               * Cold                                                     
               * * Cryogenics                                             
               * * Refrigeration                                          
               * Diathermy                                                
               * Heat balance                                             
               * Heat capacity                                            
               * * Isentropic exponent and Isenthalpic                    
                            exponent                                      
               * * Thermal activity                                       
d              * Heating                                                  
               * * Annealing                                              
               * * Calcination                                            
               * * Cooking                                                
               * * Diathermy                                              
               * * Electrocaloric effect                                  
               * * Firing, heat-treating process                          
               * * Joule-Thomson effect                                   
               * * Magnetothermal effect                                  
               * * Sintering                                              
               * * Tempering                                              
               * * Thermite process                                       
               * Temperature effects, biological                          
               (Heat of physical process)                                 
               * Heat of ablation                                         
               * Heat of agglomeration                                    
               * * Heat of coagulation                                    
               * Heat of amorphization                                    
               * Heat of annealing                                        
               * Heat of association                                      
               * * Heat of denaturation                                   
e              * * Heat of hydrogen bonding                               
               * * Heat of ion-pairing                                    
               * * Heat of micellization                                  
               * * Heat of renaturation                                   
               * Heat of atomization                                      
               * Heat of compression                                      
               * Heat of conformational inversion                         
               * Heat of contraction                                      
               * Heat of deformation                                      
               * Heat of dielectric polarization                          
               * Heat of dilution and Heat of                             
                               concentration                              
               * Heat of dyeing                                           
               * Heat of expansion                                        
               * Heat of extraction                                       
               * Heat of immersion and Heat of wetting                    
               * Heat of ion exchange                                     
               * Heat of magnetization                                    
               * Heat of mixing                                           
               * * Heat of emulsification                                 
               * Heat of molecular dynamics                               
f              * * Heat of molecular orientation                          
               * * Heat of molecular rotation                             
               * Heat of relaxation                                       
               * Heat of resolution                                       
               * Heat of solution                                         
               * * Heat of alloying                                       
               * * Heat of amalgamation                                   
               * * Heat of solubilization                                 
               * * Heat of supersaturation                                
               * Heat of sorption                                         
               * * Heat of absorption                                     
               * * Heat of adsorption                                     
               * Heat of spreading                                        
               * Heat of swelling                                         
               * Heat of transfer and Heat of transport                   
               * * Heat of flow                                           
               * Heat of transition                                       
               * * Heat of crystallization                                
               * * * Heat of crystal nucleation                           
               * * Heat of denaturation                                   
g              * * Heat of evaporation and Heat of                        
                            condensation                                  
               * * * Trouton's constant                                   
               * * Heat of fusion and Heat of freezing                    
               * * Heat of gelation                                       
               * * Heat of ordering                                       
               * * Heat of precipitation                                  
               * * Heat of recrystallization                              
               * * Heat of renaturation                                   
               * * Heat of spinodal decomposition                         
               * * Heat of sublimation and Heat of                        
                           condensation                                   
               Heat of reaction                                           
               * Evans-Polanyi equation                                   
               * Heat of abstraction reaction                             
               * Heat of addition reaction                                
               * * Heat of acetalization                                  
               * * Heat of acylation                                      
               * * * Heat of biotinylation                                
               * * * Heat of carbonylation                                
               * * * Heat of carboxylation                                
               * * *  Heat of hydroformylation                            
h              * * Heat of alkenylation                                   
               * * * Heat of vinylation                                   
               * * Heat of alkylation                                     
               * * * Heat of cyanoethylation                              
               * * * Heat of Michael reaction                             
               * * * Heat of Prins reaction                               
               * * Heat of amination                                      
               * * Heat of halogenation                                   
               * * * Heat of bromination                                  
               * * * Heat of chlorination                                 
               * * * Heat of fluorination                                 
               * * * Heat of iodination                                   
               * * (Heat of hydroaddition)                                
               * * * Heat of hydroboration                                
               * * * Heat of hydrocyanation                               
               * * * Heat of hydrohalogenation                            
               * * * * Heat of hydrobromination                           
               * * * * Heat of hydrochlorination                          
               * * * * Heat of hydrofluorination                          
               * * * Heat of hydrometalation                              
               * * * * Heat of hydroalumination                           
i              * * * Heat of hydrosilylation                              
               * * Heat of hydrogenation                                  
               * * Heat of insertion reaction                             
               * * Heat of metalation                                     
               * * * Heat of mercuration                                  
               * * * Heat of oxymetalation                                
               * * * * Heat of oxymercuration                             
               * * (Heat of organo-metal addition)                        
               * * * Heat of Grignard reaction                            
               * * * Heat of Reformatskii reaction                        
               * * (Heat of O-addition)                                   
               * * * Heat of hydration and Heat of                        
                                 dehydration                              
               * * * Heat of hydroxylation                                
               * * * Heat of ozonization                                  
               * * Heat of polymerization                                 
               * * * Heat of crosslinking                                 
               * * * * Heat of vulcanization                              
               * * * Heat of dimerization                                 
               * * * Heat of telomerization                               
               * * * Heat of trimerization                                
               * * Heat of silylation                                     
               * Heat of cavitation                                       
j              * Heat of cementation                                      
               * * Heat of aluminizing                                    
               * * Heat of boronizing                                     
               * * Heat of carbonitridation                               
               * * Heat of carburization                                  
               * * Heat of chromizing                                     
               * * Heat of nitridation                                    
               * * Heat of sherardization                                 
               * * Heat of siliconization                                 
               * * Heat of sulfurization                                  
               * Heat of chain transfer                                   
               * Heat of chemisorption                                    
                * (Heat of color reactions)                               
               * * Heat of Maillard reaction                              
               * Heat of condensation reaction                            
               * * Heat of adol condensation                              
               * * Heat of amidation                                      
               * * * Heat of Merrifield synthesis                         
               * * Heat of amination                                      
               * * Heat of coupling reaction                              
               * * * Heat of Kolbe's electrochemical                      
                             reaction                                     
k              * * * Heat of Ullmann reaction                             
               * * Heat of esterification                                 
               * * Heat of etherification                                 
               * * Heat of imination                                      
               * * * Heat of oximation                                    
               * * Heat of Knoevenagel reaction                           
               * * Heat of Mannich reaction                               
               * * Heat of Perkin reaction                                
               * * Heat of polymerization                                 
               * * Heat of Wittig reaction                                
               * Heat of coordination                                     
               * * Heat of aquation                                       
               * * Heat of deaquation                                     
               * Heat of decomposition                                    
               * * Heat of carbonization and Heat of                      
                              coking                                      
               * * Heat of cracking                                       
               * * * Heat of dealkylation                                 
               * * * Heat of hydrocracking                                
               * * Heat of decarbonylation                                
               * Heat of decarboxylation                                  
l              * * Heat of depolmerization                                
               * * Heat of dissociation                                   
               * * Heat of Edman degradation                              
               * * Heat of electrolysis                                   
               * * Heat of fragmentation reaction                         
               * * Heat of glycolysis                                     
               * * Heat of hydrogenolysis                                 
               * * Heat of photolysis                                     
               * * Heat of polymer degradation                            
               * * Heat of radiolysis                                     
               * * Heat of thermal decomposition                          
               * Heat of electron exchange                                
               * Heat of elimination reaction                             
               * * Heat of decarbonylation                                
               * * Heat of dehalogenation                                 
               * * * Heat of debromination                                
               * * * Heat of dechlorination                               
               * * * Heat of deiodination                                 
               * * (Heat of dehydroamination)                             
               * * * Heat of Hofmann degradation                          
               * * Heat of dehydrogenation                                
m              * * Heat of dehydrohalogenation                            
               * * * Heat of dehydrobromination                           
               * * * Heat of dehydrochlorination                          
               * * * Heat of dehydrofluorination                          
               * * Heat of deoxidation                                    
               * Heat of hydration and Heat of                            
                           dehydration                                    
               * * (Heat of retrogressive substitution)                   
               * * * Heat of deacylation                                  
               * * * * Heat of deacetylation                              
               * * * * Heat of decarboxylation                            
               * * * Heat of dealkylation                                 
               * * * * Heat of debenzylation                              
               * * * * Heat of demethylation                              
               * * * Heat of deamination                                  
               * * * Heat of dehalogenation                               
               * * * * Heat of debromination                              
               * * * * Heat of dechlorination                             
               * * * * Heat of deiodination                               
               * * * Heat of dehydroxylation                              
               * * * Heat of demetalation                                 
               * * * * Heat of demercuration                              
n              * * * Heat of dephosphorylation                            
               * * * Heat of desulfurization                              
               * Heat of fermentation                                     
               * Heat of formation                                        
               * Heat of graphitization                                   
               * Heat of Hill reaction                                    
               * Heat of hot-atom reaction                                
               * Heat of hydrogen transfer                                
               * * Heat of hydride shift                                  
               * * Heat of hydride transfer                               
               * * Heat of hydrogen shift                                 
               * * Heat of protonation                                    
               * Heat of inclusion reaction                               
               * Heat of ionization                                       
               * * Heat of protonation                                    
               * Heat of ion-molecule reaction                            
               * Heat of isomerization                                    
               * * Heat of allylic rearrangement                          
               * * Heat of hydride shift                                  
               * * Heat of hydrogen shift                                 
               * * (Heat of stereoisomerization)                          
o              * * * Heat of epimerization                                
               * * * Heat off mutarotation                                
               * * * Heat of racemization                                 
               * * Heat of tautomerization                                
               * Heat of neutralization                                   
               * Heat of nitrification                                    
               * Heat of passivation                                      
               * Heat of rearrangement                                    
               * * Heat of Beckmann rearrangement                         
               * * Heat of Claisen rearrangement                          
               * * Heat of Cope rearrangement                             
               * * Heat of Curtius reaction                               
               * * Heat of Favorskii rearrangement                        
               * * Heat of Fries rearrangement                            
               * * Heat of Pummerer reaction                              
               * * Heat of Schmidt reaction                               
               * * Heat of Stevens rearrangement                          
               * * Heat of Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement                  
               * * Heat of Wolff rearrangement                            
               * Heat of redox reaction                                   
p              * * Heat of disproportionation                             
               * * * Heat of Cannizzaro reaction                          
               * * * Heat of double decomposition                         
               * * * Heat of redistribution reaction                      
               * * Heat of oscillating reaction                           
               * * Heat of oxidation                                      
               * * * Heat of ammoxidation                                 
               * * * Heat of aromatization                                
               * * * Heat of combustion                                   
               * * * * Heat of detonation                                 
               * * * * Heat of ignition                                   
               * * * Heat of dehydrogenation                              
               * * * Heat of epoxidation                                  
               * * * Heat of ozygenation                                  
               * * * Heat of ozonization                                  
               * * * Heat of peroxidation                                 
               * * Heat of reduction                                      
               * * * Heat of Birch reduction                              
               * * * Heat of deoxidation                                  
               * * * Heat of hydrogenation                                
q              * * * Heat of hydrogenolysis                               
               * * * Heat of methanation                                  
               * * * Heat of nitrogen fixation                            
               * Heat of reforming                                        
               * Heat of ring cleavage                                    
               * Heat of ring closure                                     
               * * Heat of coordination                                   
                           chelation                                      
               * * Heat of cycloaddition reaction                         
               * * Heat of cyclocondensation reaction                     
               * * Heat of Dieckmann condensation                         
               * * Heat of Diels-Alder reaction                           
               * * Heat of Fischer indole synthesis                       
               * * Heat of lactonization                                  
               * * Heat of Simmons-Smith reaction                         
               * Heat of ring contraction                                 
               * Heat of ring enlargement                                 
               * Heat of saccharification                                 
               * Heat of solvation                                        
               * Heat of solvolysis                                       
               * * (Heat of acidolysis)                                   
               * * * Heat of acetolysis                                   
r              * * * Heat of formolysis                                   
               * * Heat of alcoholysis                                    
               * * * Heat of ethanolysis                                  
               * * * Heat of methanolysis                                 
               * * Heat of aminolysis                                     
               * * * Heat of ammonolysis                                  
               * * * Heat of hydrazinolysis                               
               * * Heat of hydrolysis                                     
               * * * Heat of saponification                               
               * Heat of substitution reaction                            
               * * Heat of acylation                                      
               * * * Heat of acetylation                                  
               * * * Heat of alkoxycarbonylation                          
               * * * * Heat of methoxycarbonylation                       
               * * * Heat of aminoacylation                               
               * * Heat of benzoylation                                   
               * * Heat of biotinylation                                  
               * * * Heat of carbamoylation                               
               * * * Heat of carbonylation                                
               * * * Heat of carboxylation                                
s              * * * Heat of formylation                                  
               * * * * Heat of Vilsmeier reaction                         
               * * * Heat of Friedel-Crafts reaction                      
               * * Heat of alkenylation                                   
               * * * Heat of allylation                                   
               * * * Heat of vinylation                                   
               * * Heat of alkylation                                     
               * * * Heat of aminoalkylation                              
               * * * Heat of aralkylation                                 
               * * * * Heat of benzylation                                
               * * * Heat of butylation                                   
               * * * * Heat of tert-butylation                            
               * * * Heat of ethylation                                   
               * * * * Heat of hydroxtyethylation                         
               * * * Heat of Friedel-Crafts reaction                      
               * * * Heat of haloalkyation                                
               * * * Heat of hydroxyalkylation                            
               * * * Heat of isopropylation                               
               * * * Heat of methylation                                  
               * * * * Heat of aminomethylation                           
t              * * * * Heat of benzylation                                
               * * * * Heat of carboxymethylation                         
               * * * * Heat of halomethylation                            
               * * * * * Heat of chloromethylation                        
               * * * * Heat of hydroxymethylation                         
               * * * Heat of transalkylation                              
               * * (Heat of alkylidenation)                               
               * * * Heat of methylenation                                
               * * Heat of alkynylation                                   
               * * * Heat of ethynylation                                 
               * * Heat of arylation                                      
               * * * Heat of phenylation                                  
               * * Heat of cyanation                                      
               * * Heat of cycloalkylation                                
               * * Heat of deuteration                                    
               * * Heat of diazotization                                  
               * * Heat of esterification                                 
               * * Heat of etherification                                 
               * * * Heat of glycosidation                                
               * * Heat of exchange reaction                              
               * * Heat of halogenation                                   
u              * * * Heat of bromination                                  
               * * * Heat of chlorination                                 
               * * * * Heat of oxychlorination                            
               * * * Heat of fluorination                                 
               * * * Heat of iodination                                   
               * * Heat of metalation                                     
               * * * Heat of lithiation                                   
               * * * Heat of mercuration                                  
               * * (Heat of N-substitution)                               
               * * * Heat of amination                                    
               * * * * Heat of ammoxidation                               
               * * * Heat of amidation                                    
               * * * Heat of imination                                    
               * * * Heat of nitration                                    
               * * * Heat of nitrotsation                                 
               * * * Heat of quaternization                               
               * * * * Heat of Menshutkin reaction                        
               * * * Heat of transamination                               
               * * (Heat of O-substitution)                               
               * * * Heat of acetoxylation                                
               * * * Heat of alkoxylation                                 
               * * * * Heat of ethoxylation                               
v              * * * * Heat of methoxylation                              
               * * * Heat of hydroxylation                                
               * * (Heat of P-substitution)                               
               * * * Heat of Arbuzov reaction                             
               * * * Heat of phosphonylation                              
               * * * Heat of phosphorylation                              
               * * Heat of silylation                                     
               * * (Heat of S-substitution)                               
               * * * Heat of sulfation                                    
               * * * Heat of sulfonation                                  
               * * * Heat of sulfonylation                                
               * * * * Heat of chlorosulfonylation                        
               * * * Heat of sulfuration                                  
               * * * Heat of sulfurization                                
               * Heat of transesterification                              
               * Heat of tritiation                                       
               * Heat of water gas shift reaction                         
               Irreversible process                                       
               * Dissipative structures                                   
               * Onsager reciprocal relation                              
               Partial molecular quantity                                 
               * Chemical potential                                       
w              * Gibbs-Duhem-Margules equation                            
               Pressure                                                   
               * Internal pressure                                        
               * Osmotic pressure                                         
               * * Osmotic coefficient                                    
               * Vapor pressure                                           
               * * Acentric factor                                        
               * * Antoine equation                                       
               * * Clapeyron equation                                     
               * * Dissociation pressure                                  
               * * Henry's law                                            
               * * Raoult's law                                           
               * * Partial pressure                                       
               Temperature                                                
               * Body temperature                                         
               * Electron temperature                                     
               * Geological temperature                                   
               * Isokinetic and isoequilibrium relations temp.            
               * Magnetic temperature                                     
               * Nuclear temperature                                      
               * (Phase transition temperature)                           
x              * * Boiling point                                          
               * * Bose-Einstein condensation                             
               * * Critical constant temp.                                
               * * * Critical solution temperature                        
               * * Compensation point                                     
               * * Curie point, ferromagnetic                             
               * * Debye temperature                                      
               * * Glass temperature and transition                       
               * * Lambda point                                           
               * * Melting point                                          
               * * Neel point                                             
               * * Polycritical points                                    
               * * Solidification point                                   
               * * * Freezing point                                       
               * * Triple point                                           
               * Temperature effects, biological                          
               * Thermal spike and Displacement spike                     
               * Zero absolute                                            
               Thermal analysis                                           
               * Thermogravimetric analysis                               
y              Thermodynamic cycle                                        
               Volume                                                     
               * Activation volume                                        
               * Atomic volume                                            
               * Molar volume and Molecular volume                        
               * Specific volume                                          
               Work, mechanical                                           

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Last modified: June 24, 2005

   
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