There are lots of fun links on
the web for this great holiday, but here are a few of special interest to scientists and budding
scientists. You may remember many of these sites from last year, but there are lots of
new ones as well.
- Why do we like to be frightened? What makes us go to scary movies,
and why do some of us like them more than others of us do? Read about all this at the
Why Files “Things that go bump in the night” website (http://whyfiles.org/026fear/index.html).
While you are at the Why Files, take their
“Horror of Science Quiz” (http://whyfiles.org/097halloween/7.html).
It will lead you to all sorts of really spooky science information.
How do movies make those scary special effects that give us such shivers? Check it out at the
NOVA special effects site (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/specialfx/sfxhome.html).
New: But maybe, just maybe,
haunted places really do exist (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/3044607.stm) …
- Everyone’s favorite Halloween flying mammal — the bat!
(Well, all right, the only flying mammal.) There are some terrific bat sites on the
web. Don’t miss the
National Geographic “Creature Feature — Vampire Bat” (http://kids.nationalgeographic.com/kids/animals/creaturefeature/vampire-bat/).
It comes with video, audio, maps, even an e-postcard to send to a friend — and after
all, what bat is more representative of Halloween than this largest of the American bats?
The BBC has a great bat website (http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/order/Bat).
You can also try the
Bat Quiz (http://www.lawrencehallofscience.org/batquiz/)
to see how much you already know about these intriguing creatures. What sounds do bats make?
Hear some samples of bat calls (http://www.sonobat.com/resources_newrefs.html),
see BCI’s Bat Chat, or
hear bat echo-location sounds and a brief description of how echo-location works (http://www.dnr.state.md.us/wildlife/Plants_Wildlife/bats/batelocu.asp).
You can also visit a bat cave in Jamaica.
Tired of mosquitoes in your yard?
Build a bat house (http://www.batcon.org/index.php/get-involved/install-a-bat-house.html)
to entice these interesting, insect-eating animals to your neighborhood. A bat can catch
six hundred mosquitoes in an hour.
- Your Halloween bats may be accompanied by other creatures of the night, such as
owls. There are so many different kinds of owls.
See and hear different species of North American owls (http://www.owling.com/).
The Chicago Museum of Sciences invites you to solve the “Strange Case of the Mystery Rock”.
Did you know that owls use their faces to help them hear?
Information of all kinds can be found on
the Owl Pages (http://www.owlpages.com/).
New: The Washington Dept. of Fish and Wildlife had a LiveCam in a
barn owl’s nest. The season is over and the owls are gone now, but you can
watch some fascinating archived footage (http://wdfw.wa.gov/wildwatch/owlcam/)
of owls eating, grooming, and just generally being owls. Listen to owl cries as well.
New: Did you know that another name for Barn owls is “Ghost
owls”? They are silent and deadly, and they cry a haunting screech instead of a quiet
“who”. You can build nest boxes to entice Barn owls to live near you. Find out more about these ghostly birds.
Print off a gorgeous owl mask (http://www.janbrett.com/mitten_masks4.htm).
- New: For a spooky spin on physical science,
just in time for Halloween, stop by
the Atom’s Family website (http://www.miamisci.org/af/sln/)!
Come tour the mummy’s tomb, where you’ll learn about energy conservation and the different
forms of energy; or you can check out the phantom’s portrait parlor, which hits the highlights
of atoms and matter. Wherever you choose to go, you’ll find plenty of lesson plans and
background info to keep you coming back for more. (Thanks to ENC)
- I always thought Stonehenge deserved a place in Halloween —
even though it may have nothing to do with the holiday, since Stonehenge most certainly
predates the Celts and Druids. It’s just the sort of thing that seems like it should
be so. Of course, Stonehenge is the most famous henge, but certainly not the only one, and
all are neat places to visit. The Canadian Discovery Channel takes you to a Mystic Place — Stonehenge,
or visit some of the
other stone circles and megaliths of Europe (http://www.stonepages.com/).
Was Stonehenge a place of
ritual sacrifice or murder (http://www.pbs.org/wnet/secrets/case_stonehenge/index.html)?
Did astronomy have its beginnings at places like this? Check out a
“Brief Introduction to Archaeoastronomy” (http://terpconnect.umd.edu/~tlaloc/archastro/cfaar_as.html).
And, wow, what a feat of engineering! NOVA provides an
extensive question and answer page (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/stonehenge/qanda/questions.html)
with details of the engineering and building process.
- Before they had pumpkins in Europe they had to
make Jack-O’-Lanterns out of turnips (http://www.essortment.com/all/jackolantern_reuu.htm)
— and it’s not easy to carve a turnip! New:
Learn all about pumpkins (http://urbanext.illinois.edu/pumpkins/),
how to grow them, their history, and get some neat craft ideas from Cornell. The world
record pumpkin weighed 1,092 lbs. — hope you have a BIG yard if you decide to grow one!
Be ready for next Halloween! Before Columbus, the old world didn’t have any squash, or corn,
or vanilla, or chocolate, or potatoes, or … the peoples of the Americas gave us all
these good foods to eat, and more … Squash (of which pumpkins are one) was so important
it often figured in ceremonies or religion. Learn about the
interesting Squash Kachina (http://www.ancientnations.com/Gallery%20HTML/watson_namoki_squash.html),
other Kachinas (http://220.127.116.11/katsina/default.html),
of the Hopi. Squash was important to the Hopi — young Hopi women even have a special hairstyle called the squashblossom.
You can learn more about the Hopi at the tribe’s official website,
the website of the
Official Hopi Cultural Preservation Office (http://www.nau.edu/~hcpo-p/)
exhibit on the Hopi (http://www.carnegiemnh.org/educators/online/indians/hopi/index.html)
from the Carnegie Museum of Natural History. Or try some pumpkin or squash recipes, based on
Native American cooking.
The Native American Indian Resources site (http://www.kstrom.net/isk/food/r_squash.html)
has several of these recipes (as well as some ordinary pumpkin and squash recipes).
- You might want to stock up on wolf’s bane and garlic for the holiday.
Can’t find any wolf’s bane around the house? Don’t know what it looks like? Get a
detailed description (http://botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/a/aconi007.html)
see a photograph (http://botany.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/schoepke/aco_al_1.jpg).
It’s good to recognize this plant — not only does it ward off werewolves (so they say)
but it is very poisonous. New: Don’t forget to
avoid the deadly nightshade (http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/n/nighde05.html)
as well. And
don’t forget the garlic (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/MV064)!
It may not keep werewolves and vampires away, but it may help
“keep the doctor away” (http://www.drweil.com/drw/u/id/ART00364).
Actually, there are a lot of herbs connected with Halloween. Some say the famous
witches’ brew from Macbeth (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/plays/macbeth_4_1.html)
is more likely made of various herbs than of animal parts.
You can find
additional information on these and other plants (http://botany.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/gallery.htm)
using botany sites on the web, like the ones used for the wolf’s bane information above.
[Many of these sites may require the Latin name of the plants,
use a dictionary site (http://www.merriam-webster.com/netdict.htm)
to find the Latin names.]
- What could possibly be spookier than a Halloween forest …
and what kind of trees might be in it? My favorite is the
contorted filbert tree (http://www.ars-grin.gov/ars/PacWest/Corvallis/ncgr/cool/contorta.html),
also known as Harry Lauder’s walking stick. You might also find the oldest living thing on earth,
the ancient bristlecone pine (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/methuselah/),
important uses in tree-ring studies (http://whyfiles.org/021climate/ringers.html)
for anthropology and ecology. See if you don’t agree these spooky-looking trees belong in every
Halloween forest. Are there other trees that fit into a Halloween forest? How about oaks?
New: Learn about the facts
the myths (http://www.treesforlife.org.uk/tfl.mythoak.html)
of oaks. Trees and groves were
special or sacred to a lot of ancient peoples (http://witcombe.sbc.edu/sacredplaces/trees.html).
The Celts of Ireland even
based their alphabet on the names of trees (http://irelandsown.net/ogham.html).
New: In these modern times, special trees still impact people’s
this Live oak in Georgia (http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1550483).
- How can you celebrate Halloween without the eerie sound of a wolf’s howl
(or possibly, a werewolf’s howl)? And what do different howls mean? Visit the
NOVA Wild Wolves site (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/wolves/)
to hear (and see sonographs of) a lonesome howl, a confrontational howl, a pup howl, and a chorus
howl. More wolf howls (and a few videos) are available at other websites such as Protect Wolves
World of the Wolf (http://www.naturalworlds.org/wolf/multimedia/multimedia.htm).
Is a wolf howl different from a coyote howl? You can
track individual wild wolves or packs (http://www.wolf.org/wolves/experience/telemsearch/vtelem/telem_intro.asp)
through the telemetry data provided by the International Wolf Center. Or use various methods to
track and study the Yellowstone wolf packs (http://www.wolftracker.com/winterstudy/winter.htm).
Find out about these
surprisingly shy animals (http://teacher.scholastic.com/wolves/index.htm).
Make a wolf mask (http://www.wolf.org/wolves/learn/justkids/mask/wolfmask.asp),
send a wolf e-postcard to your friends (http://online.nwf.org/site/Ecard?ecard_id=1967),
take a wolf quiz (http://animal.discovery.com/convergence/wolves/quiz/quiz.html)
to see how much you know. Do you think that someday you may see a wild wolf?
- Halloween pictures seem to always have a full moon, but how often
does this really happen on October 31? Will there be a full Halloween moon this year? Next year?
How about a blue moon? You can find the answers to some of these questions at the
US Naval Observatory Moon Phase (http://www.usno.navy.mil/USNO/astronomical-applications/data-services/phases-moon)
site (which lists all the phases for 1990 to 2005) or this
list of full moons from 1900 to 2100 (http://fermi.jhuapl.edu/s1r/amastro/tools/fullmoons.txt).
NASA tells you about
the phases of the moon (http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/questions/question3.html)
how the moon was made (http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/questions/question38.html).
read about the moon’s origin on the Why Files (http://whyfiles.org/shorties/091moon_origin/index.html).
Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Moon (http://www.shallowsky.com/moon/hitchhiker.html)
for other great moon pages. Other than turning into werewolves if they happen to have been bitten,
do people really behave differently when there is a full moon (http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/12/1218_021218_moon.html)?
- Actually, I’m not sure I have ever seen anyone in a mummy
costume at Halloween, but somehow I can’t imagine a Halloween without mummies. Visit the
National Geographic’s Mummy Road Show
to join bioanthropologists as they solve mummy mysteries. Or learn “How to Make a Mummy”.
Peel through the layers of Inca mummies (http://www.nationalgeographic.com/inca/).
virtual mummy (http://www.uke.de/institute/medizinische-informatik/index_ENG_16549.php)
allows you to unwrap a mummy with a click of your mouse. And, of course, Egypt isn’t the only
place with mummies. For instance, visit the
Ice Mummies of the Inca (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/peru/)
Mysterious Mummies of China (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/chinamum/),
and the European bog bodies.
Dr. Dig answers a lot of your
questions about mummies and the people who study them (http://www.digonsite.com/drdig/mummy/).
The Exploratorium provides you with instructions of
how to make your own mummy — of a fish (http://www.exploratorium.edu/bodies/webcast_activity.html)!
- Skeletons — you can’t have a Halloween without them! Get a
close look at all the different bones (http://homes.bio.psu.edu/people/faculty/strauss/anatomy/skel/skeletal.htm)
there are in a human body. Examine
human, gorilla and baboon bones (http://www.eskeletons.org/)
in detail. You can build a skeleton from a pile of bones at
Lawrence Hall of Science (http://www.lhs.berkeley.edu/shockwave/bones.html).
Some skeletons are much older than humans are. Look at the skulls of some of the ancestors and
relatives of homo sapiens, for instance, and see how the skulls have changed through evolutionary
time at the
Smithsonian Institution’s Human Origins Program (http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils)
UCSB’s Human Evolution (http://www.anth.ucsb.edu/projects/human/).
You can watch a brief video about how our
skeletons are adapted for walking on two feet (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/07/1/l_071_02.html).
The Smithsonian digitized a Triceratops skeleton. You can
watch it move to see how the animal walked (http://www.mnh.si.edu/exhibits/triceratops/Triceratopsdigital.htm).
[You might need the most recent version of QuickTime for some of these websites, but don’t worry,
you can download it for free.]
- New: Hey, if you have vampires, you have to have …
blood … lots of it. Vampires can’t live without it and neither,
of course, can you. If you want the low down on blood, check out the
“Red Gold” website (http://www.pbs.org/wnet/redgold/).
And have some fun while you learn about blood from
Billy Blood Drop (http://www.blood.co.uk/funzone/).
The Howard Hughes Medical Institute offers an
animation of the “visible heart” (http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/cardiovascular/animations.html),
so you can watch how blood is pumped to circulate round your body. Visit their
“vertebrate Circulatorium” (http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/cardiovascular/click.html)
to see how blood flows around the bodies of other beasts.
- Monsters come in all shapes and sizes and kinds. What about
the Loch Ness Monster (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/lochness/)?
And how about ghosts? The BBC has some
interesting things to say about ghosts (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/3044607.stm),
and why we may “feel” their presence. Some of the most interesting
real monsters live deep in the ocean (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/abyss/life/bestiary.html).
And once, before there even were people, all kinds of
giant monsters roamed the earth (http://animal.discovery.com/convergence/giantmonsters/giantmonsters.html).
- New: Halloween Science: Folk remedies,
old wives’ tales, and Frankenstein’s monster. It’s
Halloween on Science Friday (http://www.sciencefriday.com/pages/1997/Oct/hour2_103197.htm),
so let’s look at the science behind Frankenstein’s monster, physician’s findings on folk remedies,
and maybe a ghastly topic or two. This program dates from 1997, but it still raises both interest
and goose bumps! You can learn more about the use of creepy crawlies in medicine at
Bug Medicine (http://rivapprod2.riverdeep.net/current/2002/03/030402_bugmedicine.jhtml),
Creepy, Crawly Cures (http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/10/1024_031024_maggotmedicine.html),
Gross Medicine (http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1590/is_12_59/ai_99697777/).
If you get over the yuckiness of it, it is pretty interesting stuff.
- Of course masks and costumes are celebrated
at many occasions, in many cultures (http://gallery.sjsu.edu/masks/menu.html),
as well as at Halloween. You can get a beautiful
Yupik Mask screensaver (http://www.greenland-guide.gl/masks/default.htm)
as freeware. See
other stunning Yupik masks (http://www.mnh.si.edu/arctic/features/yupik/),
fabulous African masks from
Siebe Eling Boersma’s site (http://www.eling.nl/)
The Universal Mask (http://www.mama.org/collection/afc/),
shamanic masks from the Himalayas (http://www.asianart.com/articles/murray/),
Javanese masks (http://www.fieldmuseum.org/exhibits/exhibit_sites/javamask/javamask.htm),
Huichol beaded masks (http://www.mexconnect.com/articles/180-huichol-artwork-masks).
New: You can
make an African animal mask using this site from PBS (http://pbskids.org/africa/mask/),
more elaborate animal masks with these directions (http://www.allspecies.org/edu/maskmaking.htm).
New: Read a short story written by an Apache which tells of a great warrior who wanted a mask.
Masks can be strictly utilitarian, too. Ever wonder
how a gas mask works (http://www.howstuffworks.com/gas-mask.htm)?
Did you know that wearing a mask on the back of your head might
protect you from tiger attacks (http://www.lairweb.org.nz/tiger/maneating11.html)?
- Do black cats cause bad luck? The eternal question, and one that has
rarely been subjected to rigorous scientific testing. However, Mark Levin has taken it upon
examine this issue (http://petcaretips.net/black_cat_luck.html).
An informative source of cat anatomy can be found at
“Cats: Plans for Perfection” (http://www.nationalgeographic.com/features/97/cats/).
Or you may be interested in why you see those
glowing, scary eyes in the dark (http://dspace.dial.pipex.com/agarman/bco/fact4.htm).
How do animals see in the dark (http://www.ebiomedia.com/Eyes/How-do-animals-see-in-the-dark.html),
anyway? Did you know that cat species that purr cannot roar, and vice versa? The secret is in the vocal chord structure.
- There are a lot of warm-blooded animals associated with Halloween — wolves, black cats,
owls, bats — but how about other species? Every good haunted house has a few
spider webs and well they might, for these fascinating creatures are
everywhere. Why don’t spiders
get caught in their own webs (http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/art97b/benspid.html)?
Different spiders make very different webs (http://www.conservation.unibas.ch/team/zschokke/spidergallery.php?lang=en),
all made uniquely by a species-specific pattern. Spiders have special organs to make their
special silk (http://www.learner.org/jnorth/spring2001/species/spring/Update050701.html#Spin),
which is the strongest natural fiber known — 5 times stronger than steel, and elastic on
top of it all. You can listen to a
discussion of the protein structure of spider silk (http://www.aip.org/radio/html/spider_silk.html).
Spider web silk is
just plain amazing (http://www.xs4all.nl/~ednieuw/Spiders/Info/spindraad.htm)!
A lot of
what you think you know about spiders (http://www.washington.edu/burkemuseum/spidermyth/)
probably isn’t true at all.
Get under the spell of spiders (http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/educators/lesson_plans/under_spell_spiders/)!
These creatures have interesting physical features & unusual habits — two main body
parts, unusual eyes, senses, sensitivity to vibrations, silk webs, how they catch & eat
their prey, & how they reproduce.
- The history of the era of witch hunts in Europe and America is a
study in the sociology and folklore of that time and place. Might you have
been on trial in Salem (http://www.nationalgeographic.com/salem/)?
But it may be that the witch-hunting histeria was at least partially caused by the eating of
moldy rye bread. PBS explores this possibility in one of its
“Secrets of the Dead” programs (http://www.pbs.org/wnet/secrets/case_salem/index.html).
Ergot has darkly affected the history of mankind
more than once (http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/wong/BOT135/LECT12.HTM).
Ergot-caused hallucinations may also be one of the bases for belief in werewolves.
What does ergot look like? See pictures from the
American Phytopathological Society (http://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/intropp/lessons/fungi/ascomycetes/Pages/Ergot.aspx)
the Home-Grown Cereals Authority (http://www.hgca.com/research/topicsheets/topicsheet56.html).
- Since many of our Halloween customs trace back to Celtic beliefs,
you may want to check out the
mythology and mysticism (http://ecuip.lib.uchicago.edu/diglib/science/cultural_astronomy/cultures_druids-1.html)
of that ancient people. You can find information on their
art and culture (http://www.unc.edu/celtic/),
or general information about these vibrant peoples,
including information about celtic burial mounds. Learn how to build
an Iron Age round house with these instructions (http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/british_prehistory/launch_ani_roundhouse.shtml).
- Have a green Halloween! The Environmental Defense Fund provides us with
tips to have an environmentally friendly Halloween (http://www.edf.org/pressrelease.cfm?contentID=2364).
- Besides green, Halloween is red, orange and yellow — the time for flaming foliage.
Where is the best display of vibrant colors this week-end? This question and more can be answered by
the Fall Color Hotline (http://www.fs.fed.us/news/fallcolors/)
operated by the USDA Forest Service. Ever wonder about
the chemistry of fall colors (http://scifun.chem.wisc.edu/chemweek/fallcolr/fallcolr.html)?
why leaves change color (http://photoscience.la.asu.edu/photosyn/education/colorchange.html)?
a movie about this process (http://www.state.me.us/doc/foliage/kids/movie.html).
Red seems to be a particularly
hotly debated leaf color (http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=the-warm-hues-of-fall-fol)
by scientists. You can preserve the beauty of these leaves
in several ways. Some of the brightest leaves belong to the maples. Did you know you can
learn a lot of physics from
making maple syrup (http://www.goshen.edu/merrylea/sugar/physics.htm)?
What kind of tree is that? You can also use fall color to
identify tree species (http://ncnatural.com/wildflwr/fall/idguide.html).
Find out more about fall color at
NC Natural (http://ncnatural.com/fall-color/index.html).
- How about Halloween in the stars? NASA has gathered fun activities for the holiday.
There are scary looking things out there.
How about the Ghost Head Nebula (http://apod.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap011031.html),
for instance, is that spooky enough for you? Or
how about weird space-generated sounds (http://www-pw.physics.uiowa.edu/space-audio/)?
Don’t go trick or treating without knowing how to navigate by the stars! The most important
one for those of us in the northern hemisphere is, of course,
New: You might want a “sky map” for October,
and NASA shows you how to
make your own starfinder (http://spaceplace.jpl.nasa.gov/en/kids/st6starfinder/st6starfinder.shtml).
Before GPS was around, folks used lots of methods to find their way.
Stars, migrating birds, even songs. You wouldn’t want to get lost on a spooky night like Halloween!
Would Halloween be an especially good date for a spooky space invasion? Orson Welles thought so in
1938, when he broadcast the science-fiction radio program
“War of the Worlds” (http://www.mercurytheatre.info/).
What does Mars look like (http://apod.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap951031.html)?
Could there really be
life on Mars (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/marslife.html)?
How do we search for alien life in the universe?
NOVA Online (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/worlds/morrison.html)
provide answers to your questions.
Did aliens teach ancient humans how to make things (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/alienactivity/)?
- Keep your child safe!
Consult these sites on Halloween safety (http://dir.yahoo.com/Society_and_Culture/Holidays_and_Observances/Halloween/Safety).
- For more traditional Halloween websites, visit these websites:
Halloween Online (http://www.halloween-online.com/),
Librarian’s Index to the Internet: Halloween (http://www.ipl.org/IPL/Finding?Key=halloween&x=0&y=0).
You needn’t miss the fun because of disabilities.
The Bridge School (http://www.bridgeschool.org/activities/halloween/index.php)
Costume Supercenter (http://www.costumesupercenter.com/wheel+chair+costumes.html)
have some really neat costume ideas for folks in wheelchairs.
Stephanie Bianchi, National Science Foundation Library.
Webpage last updated October 2004.
Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations
expressed in this newsletter are those of the participants (authors), and do
not necessarily represent the official views, opinions, or policy of the
National Science Foundation.